What are the common factors that cause PCB circuit board failures?

Printed circuit board is a provider of electrical connections for electronic components. Its development has a history of more than 100 years; its design is mainly layout design; the main advantage of using circuit boards is to greatly reduce wiring and assembly errors, and improve the level of automation and production labor rate. According to the number of circuit boards, it can be divided into single-sided boards, double-sided boards, four-layer boards, six-layer boards and other multilayer circuit boards.


Since the printed circuit board is not a general terminal product, the definition of the name is slightly confusing. For example, the motherboard for personal computers is called the main board, and cannot be directly called the circuit board. Although there are circuit boards in the motherboard, They are not the same, so when evaluating the industry, the two are related but cannot be said to be the same. Another example: because there are integrated circuit parts mounted on the circuit board, the news media call it an IC board, but in fact it is not the same as a printed circuit board. We usually say that the printed circuit board refers to the bare board-that is, the circuit board without upper components. In the process of PCB board design and circuit board production, engineers not only need to prevent accidents in the PCB board manufacturing process, but also need to avoid design errors.

Problem 1: Circuit board short circuit: For this kind of problem, it is one of the common faults that will directly cause the circuit board to not work. The biggest reason for the PCB board short circuit is improper solder pad design. At this time, you can change the round solder pad to oval. Shape, increase the distance between points to prevent short circuits. Inappropriate design of the direction of the PCB proofing parts will also cause the board to short-circuit and fail to work. For example, if the pin of the SOIC is parallel to the tin wave, it is easy to cause a short-circuit accident. At this time, the direction of the part can be appropriately modified to make it perpendicular to the tin wave. There is another possibility that will cause short circuit failure of the PCB, that is, the automatic plug-in bent foot. As the IPC stipulates that the length of the pin is less than 2mm and there is concern that the parts will fall when the angle of the bent leg is too large, it is easy to cause a short circuit, and the solder joint must be more than 2mm away from the circuit.

Problem 2: PCB solder joints become golden yellow: Generally, the solder on PCB circuit boards is silver-gray, but occasionally there are golden solder joints. The main reason for this problem is that the temperature is too high. At this time, you only need to lower the temperature of the tin furnace.

Problem 3: Dark-colored and granular contacts appear on the circuit board: Dark-colored or small-grained contacts appear on the PCB. Most of the problems are caused by the contamination of the solder and the excessive oxides mixed in the molten tin, which form the solder joint structure. crisp. Be careful not to confuse it with the dark color caused by the use of solder with low tin content. Another reason for this problem is that the composition of the solder used in the manufacturing process has changed, and the impurity content is too high. It is necessary to add pure tin or replace the solder. The stained glass causes physical changes in the fiber build-up, such as separation between layers. But this situation is not due to poor solder joints. The reason is that the substrate is heated too high, so it is necessary to reduce the preheating and soldering temperature or increase the speed of the substrate.

Problem 4: Loose or misplaced PCB components: During the reflow soldering process, small parts may float on the molten solder and eventually leave the target solder joint. Possible reasons for the displacement or tilt include the vibration or bounce of the components on the soldered PCB board due to insufficient circuit board support, reflow oven settings, solder paste problems, and human error.

Problem 5: Circuit board open circuit: When the trace is broken, or the solder is only on the pad and not on the component lead, an open circuit will occur. In this case, there is no adhesion or connection between the component and the PCB. Just like short circuits, these may also occur during the production process or during the welding process and other operations. Vibration or stretching of the circuit board, dropping them or other mechanical deformation factors will destroy the traces or solder joints. Similarly, chemical or moisture can cause solder or metal parts to wear, which can cause component leads to break.

Problem 6: Welding problems: The following are some problems caused by poor welding practices: Disturbed solder joints: Due to external disturbances, the solder moves before solidification. This is similar to cold solder joints, but the reason is different. It can be corrected by reheating, and the solder joints are not disturbed by the outside when they are cooled. Cold welding: This situation occurs when the solder cannot be melted properly, resulting in rough surfaces and unreliable connections. Since excessive solder prevents complete melting, cold solder joints may also occur. The remedy is to reheat the joint and remove the excess solder. Solder bridge: This happens when solder crosses and physically connects two leads together. These may form unexpected connections and short circuits, which may cause the components to burn out or burn out the traces when the current is too high. Insufficient wetting of pads, pins, or leads. Too much or too little solder. Pads that are elevated due to overheating or rough soldering.

Problem 7: The badness of the pcb board is also affected by the environment: due to the structure of the PCB itself, when in an unfavorable environment, it is easy to cause damage to the circuit board. Extreme temperature or temperature fluctuations, excessive humidity, high-intensity vibration and other conditions are all factors that cause the board’s performance to decrease or even scrap. For example, changes in ambient temperature will cause deformation of the board. Therefore, the solder joints will be destroyed, the board shape will be bent, or the copper traces on the board may be broken. On the other hand, moisture in the air can cause oxidation, corrosion and rust on the metal surface, such as exposed copper traces, solder joints, pads, and component leads. Accumulation of dirt, dust or debris on the surface of components and circuit boards can also reduce the air flow and cooling of the components, causing PCB overheating and performance degradation. Vibration, falling, hitting or bending the PCB will deform it and cause the crack to appear, while high current or overvoltage will cause the PCB to be broken down or cause rapid aging of components and pathways.

Question 8: Human error: Most of the defects in PCB manufacturing are caused by human error. In most cases, wrong production process, wrong placement of components and unprofessional manufacturing specifications can cause up to 64% to avoid Of product defects appear.